Cranial trauma in beaked whales

TitleCranial trauma in beaked whales
Publication TypeConference Proceedings
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsKetten, D. R., T. K. Rowles, S. R. Cramer, J. T. O' Malley, J. J. Arruda, and P. G. H. Evans
Conference NameProceedings of the Workshop on Active Sonar and Cetaceans
Volume42 - Special Issue
Date Published02/2004
PublisherEuropean Cetacean Society
Conference LocationLas Palmas, Gran Canaria
Call NumberDRK8532
Keywordsactive sonar, beaked whales, cetaceans, frequency, impacts, marine mammal, navy, sound levels, sound source, sound transmission

Beaked whales (Ziphiidae) are a ubiquitous but poorly understood group of marine mammals. Our knowledge of them has been limited largely to off-shore sightings, surface observations, and gross measurements, often from poorly preserved animals. Historically, they are more frequently found as single stranded animals and most species rarely mass strand. For a very few species, well-preserved material is available but much of it has not been dissected nor employed in experimental work because of the rarity of specimens. Playback experiments in free ranging animals have also been difficult to achieve, and there is to date no published, clearly verified vocalization data for any beaked whale species (Wartzok and Ketten, 1999). We therefore know relatively little about ziphiid behavior or physiology in general, and virtually nothing of their use of sound or hearing abilities.